Animals accumulate ammonia, urea, uric acid, carbon dioxide, water and ions like Na + , K+ , Cl– , phosphate, sulphate, etc., either by metabolic activities or by other means like excess ingestion. These substances have to be removed totally or partially. In this chapter, you will learn the mechanisms of elimination of these substances with special emphasis on common nitrogenous wastes. Ammonia, urea and uric acid are the major forms of nitrogenous wastes excreted by the animals.
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